2018 & 2019 Tax Brackets & Standard Deductions (Updated: Post Tax Reform)

The IRS has released the 2019 tax brackets (a table breakdown of the IRS federal income tax rates) and standard deduction amounts, and there are a number of inflation adjustments over the 2018 tax brackets and standard deductions.

With the Republican Tax Cut & Jobs Act (tax reform), the 2018 and 2019 tax brackets, tax rates, and standard deduction amounts have all been revised from pre-tax reform levels, as outlined below.

Since we’re still focused on 2018 for tax filing purposes, the 2018 tax brackets are going to be of most interest to you when you do your upcoming taxes, so I have included those as well. Armed with the below information, it would be an excellent time to calculate what your modified adjusted gross income will likely be next year and modify your tax allowances on your W4 form. This will help prevent being penalized for underpayment of taxes or getting a refund (which is really a form of self penalization by letting the government borrow your money, interest-free).

2018 Tax Brackets (IRS Federal Income Tax Rates)

tax bracketsIn the tables below, it is important to note that the highlighted rates represent the income tax rate owed for the portion of your taxable income that falls into that bracket. As an example, if you are single and your taxable income is $50,000, your tax tax rate on your first $9,525 of taxable income is 10%, taxable income between $9,525 and $38,700 is taxed at 12%, and income from $38,700 to $50,000 would be taxed at 22%.

Many taxpayers incorrectly assume that if your total income peaks at the 35% tax bracket, for example, then all of your income is taxed at that rate. This is not true. The United States federal income tax system is a “progressive” tax system, with the impact being your effective (actual) tax rate is less than the tax rate in the top bracket you are in. With that in mind, here are the 2018 tax brackets:

Tax RatesSingle Filer Tax BracketsMarried Filing Jointly Tax BracketsMarried Filing Separately Tax BracketsHead of Household Tax Brackets

2018 Standard Deductions & Dependent Exemptions

standard deductionsStandard deductions can lower your taxable income by allowing you to deduct from your taxable income, if you decide not to itemize taxes.

Aside from the standard deductions, there are income tax exemptions that can be claimed, whether you itemize your taxes or take the standard deduction.

You can claim an exemption for each dependent, but note that with tax reform the personal exemption has been completely eliminated, starting in 2018. Also, note that a spouse can never be claimed as a dependent.

Here are the 2018 standard deduction and exemption amounts:

Filing Status:Deduction Amount:
Married Filing Separately$12,000
Married Filing Jointly$24,000
Head of Household$18,000
Personal Exemption$0

2019 Tax Brackets (IRS Federal Income Tax Rates)

Here are the new 2019 tax brackets:

Tax RatesSingle Filer Tax BracketsMarried Filing Jointly Tax BracketsMarried Filing Separately Tax BracketsHead of Household Tax Brackets

2019 Standard Deductions & Exemptions

And here are the 2019 standard deduction and exemption amounts:

Filing Status:Deduction Amount:
Married Filing Separately$12,200
Married Filing Jointly$24,400
Head of Household$18,350
Personal Exemption$0

For more information, check out the IRS website and my “how to do your taxes” guide.

I recently wrote a separate article on earned income tax credit tables as well, that may be of interest.

Tax Rate Discussion:

  • Which tax bracket will you top out in for this year and what are you predicting for 2019?
  • Will you be itemizing or taking the standard deduction? Why?

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