Why ‘Sell By’, ‘Use By’, & ‘Best Before’ Dates Matter
When playing the ‘is it still good?’ or ‘is it still OK to eat?’ game with your food and its shelf life (refrigerator or not), it’s fairly easy to jump to your own conclusions about what ‘Sell by’, ‘Use by’, ‘Best Before’, and ‘Best if Used by’ dates mean. For example, one may fear that they will get sick and drop dead if eating something after the ‘use by’ date, but not feel the same fears about the exact same product if it had the same date on it, but was instead stamped with ‘sell by’. But what does each guideline really mean? And is it really safe to eat the food after the use or sell by dates versus throwing it away?
Food Waste is a Huge Problem
Why does it matter? Americans are tossing out at least $161 billion in food each year. The average American family throws away 40% of their food. In terms of money, that’s hundreds of dollars every year in meats, fruit, vegetables and grain products.
That’s a lot of money and a lot of waste. Cutting this waste would save you money, lower overall food prices, and lead to a significant reduction in carbon impact and other environmental damage. And knowing what shelf-life dates mean is the first step in cutting food waste.
Lax Federal Regulation on Food Shelf-Life Dating
Believe it or not, food dating is only required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety & Inspection Service (FSIS) in the United States for baby infant formula and some baby foods, in the form of a ‘use by’ date. Other than that, there is no uniform food shelf life dating system. Past date sales regulations only exist in 21 states. However, many states have no food dating regulations at all. That doesn’t mean that there aren’t some consistencies and rules that you should follow around food shelf life.
Use By Date, or “Shelf Life”
A ‘use by date’ is the product manufacturers recommended date to use the product in order to still get peak quality. After that date, the product quality could decline, and if proper storage measures aren’t used, your health could be at risk.
Many manufacturers voluntarily include ‘use by’ dates because they want their customers to experience their food at its highest quality, in order to grow customer loyalty. They also serve as a ‘we told you so’ warning if you consume the food or drink after the date and it has gone bad.
It is generally recommended that you use a product by its ‘use by’ date. However, products can be kept for much longer periods if refrigerated below 40 degrees F or frozen.
Best if Used By/Best Before Date
‘Best if used by’, aka ‘best before’ dates are recommended use dates as determined by the manufacturer to get the highest quality version of the product, but are not aligned to food safety dates as ‘use by’ and ‘sell by’ dates are.
Sell By Date
‘Sell by’ dates are intended to serve as a guideline for grocers to sell the manufacturers products by. Foods with expired sell by dates can still be at their best quality and safe to eat if stored properly. However, as a consumer, it might be wise to buy inventory at your grocer that has a further out ‘sell by’ date versus one that has already expired.
There might also be an opportunity to bargain with grocers to get a lower price on foods that are at or past their ‘sell by’ date. Many grocers automatically mark down foods that are approaching the ‘sell by’ date, and it never hurts to ask those who do not for a discount.
Sell By Storage Guidelines
Here are some FSIS Guidelines for refrigerated products sell by dates. FSIS recommends that you follow ‘use by’ dates, and recommends freezing or cooking the fresh foods by the following timelines:
(40 °F or below)
(0 °F or below)
|Salad||Egg, chicken, ham, tuna, and macaroni salads||3 to 4 days||Does not freeze well|
|Hot dogs||Opened package||1 week||1 to 2 months|
|Unopened package||2 weeks||1 to 2 months|
|Luncheon meat||Opened package or deli sliced||3 to 5 days||1 to 2 months|
|Unopened package||2 weeks||1 to 2 months|
|Bacon and sausage||Bacon||1 week||1 month|
|Sausage, raw, from chicken, turkey, pork, or beef||1 to 2 days||1 to 2 months|
|Sausage, fully cooked, from chicken, turkey, pork, or beef||1 week||1 to 2 months|
|Sausage, purchased frozen||After cooking, 3-4 days||1-2 months from date of purchase|
|Hamburger, ground meats and ground poultry||Hamburger, ground beef, turkey, chicken, other poultry, veal, pork, lamb, and mixtures of them||1 to 2 days||3 to 4 months|
|Fresh beef, veal, lamb, and pork||Steaks||3 to 5 days||4 to 12 months|
|Chops||3 to 5 days||4 to 12 months|
|Roasts||3 to 5 days||4 to 12 months|
|Ham||Fresh, uncured, uncooked||3 to 5 days||6 months|
|Fresh, uncured, cooked||3 to 4 days||3 to 4 months|
|Cured, cook-before-eating, uncooked||5 to 7 days or “use by” date||3 to 4 months|
|Fully-cooked, vacuum-sealed at plant, unopened||2 weeks or “use by” date||1 to 2 months|
|Cooked, store-wrapped, whole||1 week||1 to 2 months|
|Cooked, store-wrapped, slices, half, or spiral cut||3 to 5 days||1 to 2 months|
|Country ham, cooked||1 week||1 month|
|Canned, labeled “Keep Refrigerated,” unopened||6 to 9 months||Do not freeze|
|Canned, shelf-stable, opened
Note: An unopened, shelf-stable, canned ham can be stored at room temperature for 2 years.
|3 to 4 days||1 to 2 months|
|Prosciutto, Parma or Serrano ham, dry Italian or Spanish type, cut||2 to 3 months||1 month|
|Fresh poultry||Chicken or turkey, whole||1 to 2 days||1 year|
|Chicken or turkey, pieces||1 to 2 days||9 months|
|Fin Fish||Fatty Fish (bluefish, catfish, mackerel, mullet, salmon, tuna, etc.)||1 – 3 Days||2 – 3 Months|
|Lean Fish (cod, flounder, haddock, halibut, sole, etc.)||6 – 8 Months|
|Lean Fish (pollock, ocean perch, rockfish, sea trout.)||4 – 8 Months|
|Shellfish||Fresh Crab Meat||2 – 4 Days||2 – 4 Months|
|Fresh Lobster||2 – 4 Days||2 – 4 Months|
|Live Crab, Lobster||1 day .||Not recommended|
|Live Clams, Mussels, Oysters, and Scallops||5 – 10 Days||Not recommended|
|Shrimp, Crayfish||3 – 5 Days||6 – 18 Months|
|Shucked Clams, Mussels, Oysters, and Scallops||3 – 10 Days||3 – 4 Months|
|Squid||1 – 3 Days||6 – 18 Months|
|Eggs||Raw eggs in shell||3 to 5 weeks||Do not freeze in shell. Beat yolks and whites together, then freeze.|
|Raw egg whites and yolks
Note: Yolks do not freeze well
|2 to 4 days||12 months|
|Raw egg accidentally frozen in shell
Note: Toss any frozen eggs with a broken shell
|Use immediately after thawing||Keep frozen, then
refrigerate to thaw
|Hard-cooked eggs||1 week||Do not freeze|
|Egg substitutes, liquid, unopened||1 week||Do not freeze|
|Egg substitutes, liquid, opened||3 days||Do not freeze|
|Egg substitutes, frozen, unopened||After thawing, 1 week or refer to “use by” date||12 months|
|Egg substitutes, frozen, opened||After thawing, 3 to 4 days or refer to “use by” date||Do not freeze|
|Casseroles with eggs||After baking, 3 to 4 days||After baking, 2 to 3 months|
|Eggnog, commercial||3 to 5 days||6 months|
|Eggnog, homemade||2 to 4 days||Do not freeze|
|Pies: Pumpkin or pecan||After baking, 3 to 4 days||After baking, 1 to 2 months|
|Pies: Custard and chiffon||After baking, 3 to 4 days||Do not freeze|
|Quiche with filling||After baking, 3 to 5 days||After baking, 2 to 3 months|
|Soups and stews||Vegetable or meat added||3 to 4 days||2 to 3 months|
|Leftovers||Cooked meat or poultry||3 to 4 days||2 to 6 months|
|Chicken nuggets or patties||3 to 4 days||1 to 3 months|
|Pizza||3 to 4 days||1 to 2 months|
Using Common Sense on Shelf-Life
These are some great guidelines, but it also pays to use some common sense guidelines around food expiration:
- If you’re not going to eat something within a few days of cooking it, then freeze it.
- If it smells bad, don’t eat it.
- If it looks bad, don’t eat it.
- If it has mold on it, don’t eat it.
- If it is perishable, at least refrigerate it.
- Perishable food does not respond well to air. Keep things covered and sealed.
- Wash your hands before touching perishable foods
What is the Best Refrigerator Temperature to Extend Food Shelf Life & Keep it Fresh?
Food will freeze at 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Bacteria like salmonella and various molds can easily grow at 40 degrees Fahrenheit and above. The ideal refrigerator temperature is somewhere in between. A number of experts put the ideal refrigerator temperature to extend food life and freshness at 36 or 37 degrees Fahrenheit.
How do you know what your refrigerator’s temperature is? A number of refrigerators will have thermometers built in, but most do not and have a few different settings. I would recommend purchasing your own refrigerator thermometer (example here) so that you can really dial in to the ideal temperature. Make sure to put the thermometer somewhere in the middle of the refrigerator, away from the cooling vents.
Shelf Life Discussion:
- What rules do you follow around shelf life?
- Do you ever bargain with grocers if a food is at or has passed its ‘sell by’ date. What kind of response do you get?